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Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was born on November 10, 1759, in Marbach, Germany, where his father worked for Duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg. When he was 13 years old, Schiller entered the Duke's military academy, the Karlsschule. He studied law and later turned to medicine. When he was 21 he was appointed to a Stuttgart regiment.
Schiller was a foremost German dramatist and, along with Goethe, a major figure in German literature's Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress) period . Both physical and spiritual freedom were issues in his work. The psychology of people in crisis is a theme in such plays as the Wallenstein cycle (1798-99), Mary Stuart (1800), The Maid of Orleans (1801), and William Tell (1804).
Schiller's first play was The Robbers (1781). When the duke learned that Schiller had, without permission, left his regiment to see the play performed at Mannheim, he put the young officer under arrest and forbade him to write anything more.
Schiller fled to Mannheim, later settling in Leipzig, where he wrote his first major poetic drama, Don Carlos (1787). The play, along with Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris (1787), helped to establish blank verse as the recognized medium of German drama.
Schiller also wrote poetry and essays, including Ode to Joy, which was later used by Ludwig van Beethoven in his Ninth Symphony. Influenced by the philosophy of Kant, Schiller developed his aesthetic theories, stressing the sublime and the creative powers of humanity. He wrote several important treatises on aesthetics, foremost among them On the Aesthetic Education of Man, as much if not more of a moral treatise as an aesthetic one. His History of the Revolt of the United Netherlands (1788) won him fame as a scholar and led to his appointment as a professor of history at the University of Jena.
Schiller edited The Hours, a journal published by Johann Friedrich Cotta, and maintained a long correspondence with Goethe. He continued to write and translate and, beginning in 1798, produced his masterpiece, the Wallenstein cycle. Partly to be near Goethe, Schiller moved to Weimar in 1799. His health gradually failed, and he died in Weimar on May 9, 1805.